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    Half Moon Bay,

    California

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    Half Moon Bay is a coastal city in San Mateo County, California, United States, approximately 25 miles (40 km) south of San Francisco. Its population was 11,324 as of the 2010 census. Immediately at the north of Half Moon Bay is Pillar Point Harbor and the unincorporated community of Princeton-by-the-Sea. The urban area had a population of 20,713 at the same census. Half Moon Bay is known for Mavericks, a big-wave surf location. It is called Half Moon Bay because of its crescent shape.
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    Budget Travel Lists

    10 ways to explore the San Francisco Bay area while social distancing

    San Francisco is unlike any other city in the world. There are always new places to visit with views to appreciate. Unfortunately, this area is in Phase 2B until further notice. This means that the requirement to wear a mask is in full sail and there are still some places that haven’t reopened, thus limiting options for adventure. Though you will not find yourself on the eerie Alcatraz Island, cheering at a Giants baseball game or watching the sea lions at Pier 39, there are still plenty of activities to enjoy. Source: Milleflore Images/Shutterstock Outside of San Francisco 1. Napa Valley and Sonoma County If you like sipping wine with your friends, then this is the area for you. With over 850 wineries between Napa and Sonoma, you will never run out of wine to taste, restaurants to enjoy, places to stay, and shopping/museums to explore. Whether old or new, each winery will bring their own unique taste and experience. Due to COVID-19, only wineries, restaurants, and tasting rooms that are able to operate outdoors will remain open for the time being. 2. Corning, California Though Corning is a small town of only about 7,500 people, it is the olive capital of the United States and the largest olive processing plant in the nation. The Olive Pit is still operating under COVID-19 restrictions, so the café (to-go orders only) and store are open but the option to pick-up is available as well. The Olive Pit has expanded their products beyond just olives to olive oil, craft beer, wine, nuts, flavored balsamic vinegar, mustards, and gift items. This local shop is the perfect way to introduce you and your family to the new exciting olive flavors. 3. Tiburon, California Just across the Golden Gate Bridge north of San Francisco lies the beautiful city of Tiburon. Life there includes lovely family bike rides, landmarks, shops, wineries and restaurants and many opportunities to get out in nature. One of the hidden gems within Tiburon is Hippie Tree. All you have to do is park near 100 Gilmartin Drive and take a little hike up the fire road. Once you have reached the top, you will find a secluded area with a breathtaking view of the Golden Gate Bridge with a huge eucalyptus tree and a swing. 4. Half Moon Bay If you’re looking for a place to go surfing, spend time on a pier, launch a boat for a morning on the water or even fish off-the-dock, Half Moon is the place for you and it’s only about 40 minutes from San Francisco. There is also endless sea food calling your name. San Mateo County is following social distancing guidelines and some places require a mask to be worn but almost everything remains open. Half Moon Bay and Pillar Point Harbor are ready to give you a day of fun. Source: Brian Patrick Feulner/Shutterstock 5. Carmel, California Point Lobos State Reserve has a little bit of everything for everyone. It has even been called “the greatest meeting of land and sea in the world.” There are plenty of opportunities to see wildlife such as sea lions, harbor seals, elephant seals, sea otters, orcas and in the winter, grey whales seen from the shore. Point Lobos is also very well-known for birding and hiking. It is a birders paradise and offers hikers several trails ranging from beginner to challenging. One of the most unique parts of Point Lobo is what lies under the water. The undisturbed aquatic life is one of the most varied in the world and is one of the top preferred diving and snorkeling spots. The reserve has closed and/or changed the hours of operation throughout the pandemic so make sure to check before hopping in the car. Hidden Treasures Within the City 6. Mosaic Stairways One of the reasons San Francisco is adored by so many is because of the culture and art scattered all through the city in the most unique ways. The staircases started as average concrete stairs but were transformed with gorgeous, colorful, and bright handmade tiles arranged in patterns that all flow together. There are three locations. One at 16th Ave, one in the Hidden Garden and the last in Lincoln Park. Source: bgrissom/Shutterstock 7. Beaches Two of the most popular beaches in San Francisco are Baker beach, known for the northwestern view of the Golden Gate Bridge and Ocean Beach on the west coast, though foggy and a bit chilly, is the city’s longest and sandiest stretch of shoreline. These beaches are only open to those on foot or bike (still available for rent throughout the city and perfect for a trip across the bridge) as the parking lots are still closed due to the Coronavirus. 8. Sutro Bath Ruins This architectural landmark in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, on the western side of San Francisco, is from 1894 when millionaire Adolph Sutro designed the largest saltwater pool that was filled by the ocean during high tide. The baths have not been in operation since before the Great Depression, but this piece of history remains and is intriguing to check out. Right near Sutro Baths is the well-known restaurant, Cliffhouse (open for takeout Thursday-Monday.) Normally there are tons of other activities in the park to enjoy, but unfortunately, any facilities that don’t make social distancing possible remain closed until the state of California can find a way to open them safely. When they do open again, one of the main attractions are all of the historical sites. For a jump back in time there are locations like Fort Mason, a Cold War Museum called Nike Missile Site, or a lesson on homeland security in the 1930’s with a 16-inch gun at Battery Townsley. Once there is a plan in place, the park will open in phases. This doesn’t include a long list of beaches, some campgrounds and other outdoor activities that visitors are still welcome to explore. Source: Michael Urmann/Shutterstock 9. Haight- Ashbury This district of San Francisco has always been a hotspot in the city, especially during the 50’s and 60’s. It is a lively and funky place with shops, restaurants, and historical sites. The most magical part of the area is that most of the people who work or live there have been able to keep the flower power and hippie vibe alive over the years. Haight-Ashbury is also known for the brightly colored Victorian style homes that survived the 1906 earthquake and fire. (For another hidden gem within the city, search for the golden fire hydrant which is said to be the only functioning hydrant during the fire!) 10. Seward Street Slides For a quick adventure, these slides are always a blast! They were created by a 14-year-old girl in a “design the park” contest in the 1960’s. The slides are still in use today. All you have to do is bring a piece of cardboard with you to sit on! Haley Beyer is a Budget Travel intern for Summer 2020. She is a Senior at the University of Nevada, Reno.

    Road Trips

    Classic Road Trip Down the Pacific Coast Highway

    Day 1: San Francisco to Carmel Shortly after we married, my wife and I discovered that the drive down Highway 1, California's coastal route, is much like young love: romantic, impractical, and filled with dizzying twists and turns. It was also crowded. Sara and I made our first trip together one summer on a day-and-a-half jaunt from San Francisco to L.A., a clip too quick to appreciate the views, but not fast enough for the leadfoots tailgating us. Over the next seven years, on subsequent trips south, we forsook Highway 1 for I-5, the big inland interstate, the highway of pragmatic middle age. But the beauty of the coast always beckoned. Sara grew restless (the seven-year itch?) for a scenic road trip. So we waited for winter, the sleepy season. We would be more mature this time around. When other cars breathed down our bumper, we'd pull aside instead of flipping them off. We'd hold hands. We'd watch the sunset. This highway--unlike most--was never meant to be hurried. It took 15 years to build, and even today, a lifetime after it opened during Franklin Roosevelt's tenure, it remains in a steady state of reconstruction--stretches of it buried under winter mudslides, or worn down by the ocean's constant kiss. The sky was clear and so was the road as we eased our way south of San Francisco. On the right side of the highway, waves frothed white against empty beaches. On the left, farmland formed a carpet of emerald green. We passed the crescent coastline of Half Moon Bay and then, 18 miles south, took a short detour to the town of Pescadero, known for its artichoke harvests. A friend had told us we wouldn't want to do without a slice of artichoke bread at Arcangeli Grocery Co. More bread than artichoke, it wasn't worth the side trip, but it tided us over as we cut back to the coast. Outside of Santa Cruz we shot north on Highway 9 to the mountainside town of Felton, where a local artist named Michael Rugg runs the free Bigfoot Discovery Museum. A cheery, bearish man, Rugg stood behind the counter when we walked in, relaying tales of Bigfoot sightings to a young, wide-eyed believer. Catching us eavesdropping, Rugg waved us over and showed us a term paper he wrote in 1967 as a Stanford undergrad: "A History and Discussion of the Abominable Snowman Question." It was more persuasive than some of his other exhibits, like the Milton Bradley yeti board game, or the tabloid headline, complete with doctored photo, hanging on the wall: "World's First Bigfoot Hooker." The museum is barely larger than a woodshed, but we managed to stay for an hour. I was delighted, though not entirely convinced, by a Roger Patterson film, a significant snippet from the canon of Bigfoot studies, which shows a large ape-man ambling along a wooded stream. "A lot of people say it's just a guy in a gorilla suit, but I know it's real," said a visitor, a man in his 40s with a dreamy stare. Like Bigfoot, Santa Cruz has a reputation for attracting plenty of eccentrics--a reputation promoted by the city, whose residents buy bumper stickers that read keep santa cruz weird. The Gelatomania Café downtown(now closed) is odd, all right. Run by Buddhists, it's an Italian ice cream shop that doubles as an oxygen bar. Sara got a scoop of chocolate gelato, while I shelled out five bucks to inhale air scented like the sea. That fragrance grew stronger when we got to Steamer Lane, one of the best surf spots on the West Coast. Dozens of surfers bobbed in the water, waiting for a fleeting shot at glory. The sun was hanging low by the time we arrived at the 17-Mile Drive, the famous gated loop that winds past landmark golf courses and zillion-dollar mansions. We paid $9 for the right to drive it, and left an hour later with a much clearer sense of how the other 0.001 percent lives. For dinner, we split a wood-fire pizza at Cafe Rustica, a homey restaurant in Carmel Valley, the inland stepsister to Carmel. It's a 15-minute detour off the highway, a small sacrifice for a good pizza. Food Arcangeli Grocery Co. 287 Stage Rd., Pescadero, 650/879-0147, loaf of artichoke bread $5 Cafe Rustica10 Delfino Pl., Carmel Valley, 831/659-4444, pizza $12 Activities Bigfoot Discovery Museum5497 Hwy. 9, Felton, 831/335-4478 17-Mile DrivePebble Beach exit off Hwy. 1 south, pebblebeach.com, car fee $9 Day 2: Carmel to San Luis Obispo We awoke at daybreak to visit Earthbound Farm in Carmel. An all-organic operation, Earthbound sells its own produce and freshly made foods from a quaint storefront. I got a Like-a-lada smoothie (made with pineapple, coconut, and banana), which I liked-a-sorta, but not as much as Sara's Mango Tango. We grabbed organic chicken sandwiches for the road, strolled through the aromatic herb gardens, and climbed back in the car, feeling refreshed and pesticide-free. It wasn't long before we arrived in Big Sur, once a magnet for beatniks, now a haven for artists and wealthy spa-goers. We turned right at unmarked Sycamore Canyon Road (the first paved road past the post office) and drove two miles to Pfeiffer Beach, where the currents have carved arches in the sandstone and greenstone rocks. It was just us and the seagulls. The Henry Miller Library, set in a shaded redwood grove a short drive south, was peaceful and meditative. "Library" is a misnomer, since you can't borrow anything. But you can buy books, read letters, and gaze at watercolors by the famous writer (and less-famous painter) who lived in Big Sur for 18 years. As we progressed, the views became more dramatic; every turnout in the road was a temptation to pull over and snap photographs. Sara gazed at the rocky shoreline, while I concentrated on not steering us off a cliff. Still, by the time we arrived at aptly named Ragged Point, Sara's queasy look was a reminder that on Highway 1, it's easier to drive than navigate. I'd read that Piedras Blancas was a winter hangout for elephant seals. The giant beasts were lolling about on the windy beach, as unself-conscious as experienced nudists. Signs informed us that we had come a few weeks too late to see the real highlight: the young being born and the seagulls eating the afterbirth. Shucks. Hearst Castle, in San Simeon, is a popular stop along this drive, but we decided to continue on to Cambria, where another obsessive built a very different kind of home. Nit Witt Ridge is the anti-Hearst Castle, constructed by local garbageman Art Beal, who used tire rims, beer bottles, abalone shells, anything he could get his hands on. Beal died in 1992, but a man named Michael O'Malley owns the place now and runs entertaining tours. O'Malley showed us one of Beal's bathrooms. Lovelorn for much of his life, the garbageman never fully gave up hope: He equipped the tiny room with his-and-hers toilets. San Luis Obispo, a college town with an easygoing surf-side vibe, holds a farmers' market every Thursday evening. We arrived just in time. The main street, Higuera, is closed to traffic for the occasion, so we took a streetcar. There were fewer farmers than restaurateurs operating sidewalk stands, but we couldn't complain. Sara got a burger, and I had a sausage. That night, we checked in to the La Cuesta Inn, a clean, comfortable hotel with soft beds and bathrooms with just one toilet. Lodging La Cuesta Inn2074 Monterey St., San Luis Obispo, 805/543-2777, lacuestainn.com, from $89 Food Earthbound Farm7250 Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel, 831/625-6219, ebfarm.com, smoothie $4 Activities Nit Witt Ridge881 Hillcrest Dr., Cambria, 805/927-2690, $10, kids $5 Henry Miller LibraryHwy. 1, Big Sur, 831/667-2574, henrymiller.org, donations accepted Day 3: San Luis Obispo to Santa Barbara The Big Sky Cafe, downtown, serves all the great morning standards, plus a terrific posole, a pork and hominy stew. At our waitress's suggestion, we strolled into the parking lot across the street to see a local landmark called Bubble Gum Alley. It's a walkway between stores where, for decades, San Luis Obispans have been sticking their chewed gum. Sure enough, the alley was covered in the gooey stuff, some fresh and pink but most brown with age. Far from an example of public art, the alley struck me as a threat to public health. This part of the California coastline is still beautiful, but less rugged than up north. It's also more developed, scarred by subdivisions. We found refuge in Pismo State Beach, a winter breeding ground for monarch butterflies. They were flitting around the bushes and eucalyptus trees. In a tranquil clearing, a sign promised butterfly talks daily at 11 a.m. We waited. And waited. We watched the butterflies. No one came to talk, but it didn't matter. The butterflies were best observed in silence anyway. On the way toward Solvang, we cut inland through rolling wine country, the stunning vineyards featured in Sideways, and stopped at La Purisima Mission, founded in 1787. The Mission was destroyed by an earthquake in 1812, and it's since been faithfully rebuilt seven miles from its original location. The big, bucolic compound has low-slung Spanish-style adobe buildings and artifacts depicting life some 200 years ago. We were the only visitors in the sprawling place, and burros and horses grazed in a fenced-in pasture. Solvang is a peculiar place, a city that was settled by Danish immigrants that's now a tourist draw. It looked to me like Danish Disney World: windmills, wood-frame gingerbread houses, a store selling Christmas ornaments year-round. Even the Best Western has the chutzpah to call itself the Kronborg Inn. At the New Danish Inn Restaurant (now closed), we ordered smorgasbord, a buffet of meatballs, cabbage, and forlorn-looking salads, only to discover that smorgasbord is Danish for "lots of food we're not in the mood to eat." So we headed next door to Paula's Pancake House for delicious Danish pancakes--big, light, and dusted with powdered sugar. Late that afternoon, we started to see palm trees, nature's welcome to southern California. The Pacific Crest Inn, a no-frills motel in Santa Barbara, was remarkably inexpensive for a place only a block from the beach. An unadvertised bonus: The inn is also near La Super-Rica Taqueria. The Mexican restaurant was celebrated by Julia Child, and I'd heard so much hype about it, I was braced for disappointment. But the tamales, stuffed with chayote squash and topped with cream sauce, were the best I've ever eaten, and the salsa was hot enough to melt my teeth. Lodging Pacific Crest Inn by the Sea433 Corona Del Mar, Santa Barbara, 805/966-3103, from $59 Food Big Sky Cafe1121 Broad St., San Luis Obispo, 805/545-5401, posole $9 Paula's Pancake House1531 Mission Dr., Solvang, 805/688-2867, pancakes $5 La Super-Rica Taqueria622 N. Milpas St., Santa Barbara, 805/963-4940, tamale $4 Activities Pismo State BeachPier Ave., Oceano, 805/489-2684 La Purisima Mission2295 Purisima Rd., Lompoc, 805/733-3713, car fee $4 Day 4: Santa Barbara to L.A. As we loaded up the car, two young surfers passed us on their way back from the water. "Totally gnarly," they said, when we asked how the waves were. Our drive down toward Ventura was also pretty gnarly, skirting a coastline that seems to have sprung from a Beach Boys song. Turning inland, we merged with heavy traffic on the 405 freeway. On a hilltop in the Santa Monica Mountains, Los Angeles's Getty Center caused such a stir when it opened in 1997 that visitors had to make reservations. No longer. Still, it was crowded when we got there at 11 a.m., and the line for the tram--the only way up--was dishearteningly long. By the time we reached the top, about 40 minutes later, our schedule was too tight to tour the exhibits. But the building, designed by Richard Meier, is art enough--a gleaming modernist fortress of Italian travertine. The grand gardens are like a streamlined, modern version of those at Versailles, and a smaller cactus garden offers extensive variety--some round and squat, others tall and lanky, with arms outstretched like gunslingers. Beyond, a view of L.A. was spectacular but sobering--ocean to the west, smog to the south. Leaving the museum, we cut back west to Santa Monica. Main Street was crammed: cars, cafés, cool dudes. We stopped at Urth Caffé for prosciutto sandwiches. On our way out, a blond man in hip shades shouldered past us. "An actor!" Sara whispered excitedly. He's the one, she explained, who played the hero in that film we saw that time, the one with those chase scenes and the fate of the world hanging in the balance. "Are you positive that wasn't the sequel?" I replied. On the way to the airport, we hit apocalyptic traffic. In the course of our trip, we'd watched one of the world's loveliest highways grow into a groaning urban thoroughfare, not so much ugly as monotonous. We sat in silence, a couple on the cusp of middle age, happy and comfortable together, even if the highway we love had become a road we no longer recognize. Food Urth Caffé2327 Main St., Santa Monica, 310/314-7040, prosciutto sandwich $12 Activities The Getty Center1200 Getty Center Dr., L.A., 310/440-7300, getty.edu, parking $7 Finding your way Highway 1 runs south from the Golden Gate Bridge, cutting across the Presidio and Golden Gate Park. It also passes through neighborhoods that are usually clogged with traffic and not especially scenic. An easier way to pick up Highway 1 is to take Highway 101 south from San Francisco to 280 south, which meets Highway 1 near the coast. Mudslides and flooding sometimes close parts of Highway 1 in winter. For road conditions, call Caltrans at 916/445-7623. The Getty Center isn't on Highway 1. To get there, head east on Highway 10 and backtrack north on the 405. If Highway 1 is closed through the Santa Monica Mountains, stay on the 101 south to the 405 south.

    Inspiration

    3 Animal Migrations No Wildlife Lover Should Miss

    This article was written by Wendy Worrall Redal, Editorial Director at Natural Habitat Adventures. There's no question that Africa's legendary wildebeest migration is a bucket-list dream for nature travelers. But the fact is, Africa is expensive to get to, even for a budget safari. If you're fascinated by epic wildlife pilgrimages, here are three amazing phenomena you can witness without leaving North America. Gray WhalesOctober marks the beginning of the world's longest mammal migration: the epic journey of the Pacific gray whales from their summer feeding grounds in Alaska to the birthing and nursery lagoons of Mexico's Baja Peninsula. When the northern waters begin to freeze, the whales take a cue to head south, traveling 24 hours a day to cover more than 5,000 miles. Gray whales swim very close to the coast and are often seen from shore, revealed by their spouts as they exhale. By December the first of the whales—usually pregnant females—have reached the warm, protected waters of Baja, preparing to give birth and raise their young. In February and March, whale-watchers who visit the subtropical lagoons are often treated to close-up encounters with gentle mothers and their young—it's not uncommon for a friendly whale to guide her baby right up alongside an open skiff to show it off to delighted tourists. The Pacific coast offers excellent gray whale watching in the winter and spring. Whales are frequenty spotted from Oregon's many roadside pull-offs along the ocean (bring binoculars for the best view), or scout for spouts from Point Reyes National Seashore north of San Francisco. To come closer, consider a boat-based outing. Various day-tour operators and marine education groups offer whale-watching cruises, such as the Oceanic Society's naturalist-led 3-hour trip out of Half Moon Bay on weekends from December through May. For the ultimate thrill, book a Baja tour with multiple excursions among the whales. Sandhill CranesFor nature lovers, especially bird enthusiasts, few spectacles can compete with the annual sandhill crane migration along Nebraska's Platte River each spring. From late February through early April—usually peaking in mid-to-late March—some 500,000 sandhill cranes stage along the riverbanks to feed and build up fat reserves. The tall, graceful birds are accompanied by thousands of waterfowl, shorebirds and other species that also migrate through the area, creating a cacophonous frenzy in the marshes. Fort Kearney State Historical Park serves as the central information point for crane watchers each spring, with maps and guidance for how to watch from the many viewing decks and bridges in the Kearney and Grand Island area where the greatest number of cranes congregate. Several roadside turnouts offer a chance to see cranes from one's car, though the best experience is from within a specially designated blind. Rowe Sanctuary, operated by the National Audubon Society and Crane Meadows, a private non-profit nature center, offer sunrise and sunset blind tours for close-up views of cranes along the river. Reservations are required, and the cost is $15-18 per person. For more information on viewing the crane migration, consult Nebraska Game and Parks. Monarch ButterfliesWith the first frosts of autumn in southern Canada and the northeastern U.S., monarch butterflies take to the skies, drawn south by an innate compass that remains a mystery to scientists. Flying 50 miles a day for two to three months—up to 3,000 miles in all—they arrive at their winter roosting grounds in Mexico's central highlands by early November. The fir forests of this remote region of Michoacan provide just the right microclimate for the tens of millions of butterflies that congregate here, finding refuge in the fog and freezing rain at 10,000 feet by clinging together to the trunks and brunches in great clumps. At first sight they resemble heavy cloaks of autumn leaves, till the sun comes out to warm their wings and they swirl into the air in a fluttering cloud of orange. This is the only place in the world where one can literally hear the sound of butterfly wings beating. The millions of gossamer orange and black-veined wings create a gentle hum as the monarchs float about, sometimes landing on an enchanted visitor's head or hand. Once the warm winds of spring arrive in early March, the monarchs fly once again, following the blooming milkweed that sustains them on their northward journey. Travelers who want to stand among the monarchs must travel into the mountains above the former silver-mining village of Anguangeo to one of several butterfly sanctuaries that are accessible on foot via a steep hike or by horseback. A guided package tour is the best approach; most are approximately one-week affairs that typically begin and end in Mexico City and include other natural and cultural highlights in addition to the butterflies.

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    DESTINATION IN California

    San Francisco

    San Francisco (; Spanish for "Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern California, San Francisco is the 17th most populous city in the United States, and the fourth most populous in California, with 873,965 residents as of 2020. It covers an area of about 46.9 square miles (121 square kilometers), mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is the 12th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States with 4.7 million residents, and the fourth-largest by economic output, with a GDP of $592 billion in 2019. With San Jose, California, it forms the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, the fifth most populous combined statistical area in the United States, with 9.6 million residents as of 2019. Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include SF, San Fran, The City, and Frisco.In 2019, San Francisco was the county with the seventh-highest income in the United States, with a per capita income of $139,405. In the same year, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $203.5 billion, and a GDP per capita of $230,829. The San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, with a GDP of $1.09 trillion as of 2019, is the country's third-largest economy. Of the 105 primary statistical areas in the U.S. with over 500,000 residents, this CSA had the highest GDP per capita in 2019, at $112,348. San Francisco was ranked 12th in the world and second in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of March 2021.San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established the Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, both named for Francis of Assisi. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. It then became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "beatnik" and "hippie" countercultures, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, and other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, and its Chinatown district. San Francisco is also the headquarters of companies such as Wells Fargo, Twitter, Square, Airbnb, Levi Strauss & Co., Gap Inc., Salesforce, Dropbox, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Uber, and Lyft. The city, and the surrounding Bay Area, is a global center of the sciences and arts and is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), the University of San Francisco (USF), San Francisco State University (SFSU), the de Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the SFJAZZ Center, and the California Academy of Sciences.